Sources and Definitions


European Commission (2016). Digital Single Market website. Available from Here

 Omidyar Network (October 2017). Digital Identity and Privacy. Available from Here 

McKinsey Global Institute (2013). Lions go digital: The Internet’s transformative potential in Africa. Available from Here 

McKinsey Global Institute (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age: How Trade, Finance, People, and Data Connect the World Economy. Brussels, San Francisco and Shanghai: McKinsey and Company.

McKinsey Global Institute (2016). Digital Globalization: The new era of global flows. Available from Here 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Information Economy Report: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries. Sales No. E.15.II.D.1. Available from Here 

United States International Trade Commission (2013). Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 1. USITC Publication 4415. Washington D.C. Available from Here 

World Trade Organization (2016). Electronic Commerce website. Geneva. Available from Here 


Digitization/ digitalization: is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format.  In this format, information is organized into discrete units of data (called bits). Digitized information is easier to share, store, preserve as well as access.

Interoperability:  is the ability of a computer system to run application programs from different vendors, and to interact with other computers across local or wide-area networks regardless of their physical architecture and operating systems. Interoperability is feasible through hardware and software components that conform to open standards such as those used for internet. Read more:

Legal Identity: is the recognition of a person’s existence before the law, facilitating the realization of specific rights and corresponding duties. Read more: