The IDEP Monthly Development Seminar (MDS) Series is another forum where researchers and policy makers can engage in mutual learning and knowledge exchange for the betterment of the African continent. The seminar presentations are made by invited guests who are established policy researchers, policy analysts, and development practitioners. The seminar series is conducted over a period of three (3) hours that includes a general debate on various perspectives. The invited speakers are policy makers, with a discussant, usually a senior scholar with competence in the field being discussed and vice versa, chairing the sessions. The MDS Series brings together an audience of senior policy officials from public and private institutions, civil society organisations, research institutes, think tanks, officials of the diplomatic bodies, international organisations and UN agencies, academics and research students. Through the seminars the Institute contributes to the bridging of the existing divide between African research and African policy action.