The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It reviews implementation of the Convention and legal instruments that the COP adopts and promotes implementation of the Convention. This includes assessing the effects of measures taken by Parties and progress towards the objectives of the Convention and proposes measures/mechanisms as needed.
It is expected that COP28 will feature significant bilateral agreements in addition to the traditional negotiations. We cannot predict the nature of these pacts that will be announced at COP, but the AGN routinely informs regional stakeholders of their common position. On this basis, some of the key priorities for Africa at COP28 are:
- Adaptation: Concerned with the delay in operationalizing the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) and the disappointing COP27 process outcome, AGN is pushing for the urgent adoption of a framework with science-based indicators, targets and metrics to achieve the GGA.
- Loss and Damage: Under this priority, the focus will be the operationalisation of the Loss and Damage Fund. The AGN wants COP28 to agree that rich nations should provide $200-400 billion a year by 2030 for loss and damage and $400 billion a year for adapting to climate change, in addition to funding to reduce emissions.
- Global Stocktake: The global stocktake (GST), as enshrined in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement takes place every five years as a process for taking stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The first stocktake got underway at COP26 in Glasgow and is expected to conclude at COP28. Each stocktake is a two-year process. The AGN will negotiate for adoption of the 1st GST report that pushes for greater ambition.
- Financing: Climate finance is a complex issue in the climate change negotiations. Africa is concerned about Just Transitions especially in energy, finance, and agriculture, and the implications on development. The continent is seeing itself as a powerhouse of solutions, based on its abundant renewable energy and capacity for carbon sequestration. The AGN’s position continues to be that pledged climate finance should be made available, including delivery of USD 100 Billion per year promised, adaptation finance should be doubled, and the New Quantified Goal on Climate Finance should be finalized at COP 28. AGN supports reforming the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), but cautions developed countries against using the COP27 decision calling for reforms in the and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) as excuse to renege on their climate financial obligations.
- Just Transitions: The AGN want rich countries to stop greenlighting new fossil fuel production projects by 2030. The proposal is based the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capacities.” In this regard, the AGN is calling for differentiated pathways for countries in the pursuit of net zero and fossil fuel phasedown.
- ECA Participation: As outlined above, the main objective of ECA’s presence at COP28 is to provide technical backstopping and knowledge support to the AGN on key issues such as the GST, loss and damage and climate finance. ECA will therefore closely monitor the progress of the negotiations and constantly consult with the AGN.
In 2011, the African Union Summit mandated pan-Africa institutions (AUC, ECA, AUDA-NEPAD and AfDB) to convene an Africa Pavilion at COP17, as a space for events, dialogue and partnerships in line with issues of priority to Africa. Since then, the institutions have regularly partnered in facilitating an Africa Pavilion at COP meetings.
For COP28, ECA with its partners, has lined up over 10 side-events for the Africa Pavilion. The highlight of the events is the Africa Day tentatively scheduled for the afternoon of 2nd December. ECA will also be involved in side-events organized at UNFCCC venues and other pavilions. The events ECA is involved in will be shared on this page.