Africa is at a critical development juncture. It seeks to accelerate economic growth to meet national development goals in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the African Union’s Agenda 2063, and to do so in a financially and environmentally sustainable way. The cost to achieve the SDGs by 2030 in Africa is estimated at about $1.3 trillion a year, according to the United Nations. That could increase to $19.5 trillion as a result of population growth—projected to be 43 per cent over 2015–2030. African countries’ capacity to achieve the SDGs by 2030 is estimated, on average, at 53 per cent of what is needed—particularly for the goals to end extreme poverty, hunger and inequality; tackle climate change and build resilient infrastructure.